Luoyang is one of the Northern Song Dynasty porcelain production centers, “Yuanfeng Jiuyuzhi” contains, “Xijing Luoyang Porcelain is a tribute”, and Luoyang porcelain workshop is mainly in Shouan County (now Yiyang County), currently found Eryi Erli Temple Kiln site, Yiyang West Street kiln are official kiln. The Yiyang kiln is mainly made of fired celadon. It also burns white porcelain, white black porcelain, black porcelain and yellow porcelain. The utensils produced in Yiyang kiln, with the exception of a part of the pigment, are not engraved, but are carved and printed. The enamel series and the characteristics of Yaozhou porcelain occupy an important position in the history of Chinese ceramics.
1 Two kiln sites under the mountain of Shouan
The main peak of the Yiping Mountain in Yiyang is Jinping Mountain, which has beautiful scenery, rich resources, and convenient transportation. It is the ideal place for producing porcelain.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, "Yuanfeng Jiuyuzhi" contained, "Xijing Luoyang Porcelain is a tribute." "Song History Geography" contains, "Henan Fugong porcelain." The porcelain workshop in Henan Province (now Luoyang) is mainly in Yiyang. Song Shaobo Wen "Shaw's Wen Jian Lu" volume eleven, Sima Guang in Luoyang fifteen years, "more tours Shoushan, buy porcelain kiln riverside for the rest of the land," Shoushan in the Song Dynasty Shouan County. Sima Guang bought a house next to the porcelain kiln for travel convenience. It can be seen that the Yiyang porcelain kiln is located near the Shouan Mountain and is a very famous place.
At present, there are two areas of Song Dynasty porcelain kiln sites found in Yiyang County, namely the ruins of the Song Dynasty porcelain kiln of Erli Temple and the Song Dynasty porcelain kiln ruins of Yiyang West Street. Erli Temple The Song Dynasty Porcelain Kiln Site is located in Erli Miao Village, Chengguan Town, Yiyang County. It is mainly burned celadon, and burns white porcelain, black white porcelain, black porcelain, and yellow porcelain. It is an important kiln for the study of enamels in the Song Dynasty. One of the mouths. There are 4 sites in total: one in the north of Erli Mura Village, with an area of about 400 square meters; one in the east of Erli Miao Village, with an area of about 400 square meters; one in the north of Hongyao Village, with an area of about 600 square meters; Madi Village In the north, it has an area of about 400 square meters.
Yiyang West Street Kiln is located in West Inner Street of Yiyang County. In 1977, the Henan Provincial Cultural Relics Task Force investigated the Song Dynasty porcelain kiln of the Yili Erli Temple. There was a kiln site in the west street of Yiyang County. Due to local construction, in 1985, the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology carried out rescue archaeological excavations on the kiln site and found relics such as kilns and workshops. A large number of tiles and kiln furniture were unearthed. The West Street kiln and the Erli Temple kiln are basically the same type of fired products, mainly producing white glaze porcelain, black glaze porcelain and blue glaze porcelain. The glazed porcelain here is a little thicker, with a floral print and beautiful composition.
Qianlong's "Yiyang County Chronicle" contains: "De Yinghou Temple in the county of Xi Erli, Song Xining feels the German army defending ministers to hear about water and drought should be heard, rule the temple seal Marquis enjoy the magpie. Chongning repeated repairs in the last year, this time spent without test, One is in the hillside.” Deyinghou is a kiln god worshiped by the northern porcelain kilns. During the Song Xizong Xining years (1068 AD to 1077 AD), the German army stationed in Yaozhou made a request to enclose the kiln god as a de. With the consent of Shenzong, Yiyang Jiande Ying Hou Temple, so the kiln burning porcelain before the Xining. The temple was rebuilt in the late Chongning of the Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty (AD 1106), indicating that the porcelain making industry in the two kiln areas continued until the end of the Northern Song Dynasty. The Deying Temple was rebuilt and rebuilt. It still exists today, and the people also call it the Patriarch Temple.
Qianlong's "Yiyang County Chronicle" contains another Deyinghou Temple on the Banbi Mountain. The mountain is the main peak of the Lutengshan Mountain, because the Deyinghou Temple is generally repaired near the porcelain kiln, indicating that the hillside is also a kiln site. At present, the half-hill kiln site has not yet been discovered.
2 Yiyang Porcelain Kiln is an official kiln
The white porcelain bowl unearthed in Yijie West Street Kiln has the word “wine” printed on the bottom, and the black porcelain vase is engraved with the “Transfer Judge for Beijing West and Gongfeng Liquor” for the black porcelain bottle. It is related to the word “wine”. The former is a dedicated drinker, and the latter is a tribute porcelain for holding tribute wine.
“Road” is an administrative area set up by the Northern Song Dynasty for the collection of taxes and the transfer of grain. The road was set up with 15 roads, and it was later set up as 18 and 23 roads. Luoyang is a place where government is located (including ancient administration, government administration, state administration, and county administration). Jingxi Road covers a large area and basically includes the west of Jingguang Railway and the north of the Yangtze River, such as Henan and Hubei. Ground. Beijing West Road will have administrative officials such as transit agents, deputies and judges. From the point of view of “Jingshi Transit Judges and Gongfu Liquor”, the Yiyang Kiln is the official kiln of the Song Dynasty. The official kiln refers to the kiln that is directly controlled by the imperial court and specifically burns the palace apparatus.
As the official kiln of the Northern Song Dynasty, its porcelain quality is superior. In 1978, a white glaze black vase, 22 cm high and 65 cm in diameter, was unearthed in the kiln site of Erli Temple; the mouth was horn-shaped, slender necked, and the lower abdomen was covered with external drums and flat bottoms; the entire body was white-glazed; painted black flowers, Under the neck to the abdomen painted with a stripe pattern, abdomen around the painted floral pattern, the lower abdomen to draw a striped pattern, is a precious specimen of Yiyang porcelain kiln research.
In addition to this white-glazed black vase, there are two standard Yiyang kiln kiln. In 1970, a white-glazed black plum vase collected in Dongzigou Village, Dongwangzhuang Township, was 44 cm in height, 17 cm in abdominal diameter, and 10.5 cm in bottom diameter. The small mouth, short neck and abundance of the vase are triangular along the profile; the upper abdomen is slightly drummed, the lower abdomen is gradually inflated, and the flat bottom is small; the external body is white-glazed and painted black-colored; the white neck is painted with a three-way thin and finely-coordinated band pattern; Draw a branching pattern, draw the middle of the water and peony flower pattern, and draw the big banana pattern on the lower part. The Amber Porcelain Tianmu Porcelain Bowl collected in Chengguan Town in 1976 was 7 cm high, 12 cm in diameter, and 4 cm in bottom diameter. These two utensils were identical to the porcelain specimens of the Erli Temple Kiln site, demonstrating that it was the kiln product.
3 The site of the official kiln is not accidental
There are many considerations for the site selection of the official kiln, one of which is in the vicinity of Gyeonggi. The second is convenient transportation, the third is excellent porcelain, and the fourth is the ceramic production process inherited from generation to generation. And these four conditions are all available in Yiyang.
Yiyang is located near Luoyang in Xijing, near to Kaifeng in Tokyo. It can reach the two cities via Luohe River and the Grand Canal. The ceramics used for making Gong Gong must be made of high-quality porcelain clay and enamel. The main components of china clay are kaolin and makeup clay, and they contain feldspar, quartz, and mullite. The enamel clay is made of quartz, feldspar, borax, and clay as raw materials, ground into powder, and filled with water. It is a kind of vitreous compound coated on the outside of clay products. And Luyi Mountain and Jinping Mountain in Yiyang have a large number of high quality porcelain clay and glaze.
More importantly, Yiyang has a long history of ceramics. As early as the Neolithic Age, there has been a wealth of pottery culture. There are many Neolithic cultural sites in Yiyang, and a large amount of pottery is unearthed. For example, the Suyang site of Suyang Village in Zhangwu Township contains relics such as pottery pots, cylinders, tripods, small-mouthed sharp-bottomed bottles, pots, utensils, lids, pots, reels, etc.; Black pottery has beans, cups, small high-necked jars, etc.; the main lines are rope lines, blue lines, pattern lines, and additional pile patterns.
From the Western Han Dynasty to the Five Dynasties, Yiyang ceramics industry has been very developed. Tang Sancai unearthed in Renhou Village of Hancheng City in 1979 has a high-green glaze with a glazed down stream, and varies in length, flat, exposed, and simple in shape. It is a practical device. In 1978, a five-generation Houliang pottery stamp unearthed in the town of Fukuchang, Hanwon Province, was 25.5 centimeters long and 2 centimeters thick. It was nearly square. The front of the board was engraved with a samurai horse-drawn figure, and the back was engraved. The new stone carving board of a Japanese family was printed in a box of household records. It shows that when the Tang and the Five Dynasties, Yiyang ceramics industry has reached a higher level.
4 Characteristics of Yiyang Gong Porcelain
The academic circles generally set the porcelain of Yiyang kiln as the enamel series. In fact, on the contrary, the enamel belongs to the Yiyang kiln series. Because the initial time of Yiyang Guanyao was not later than the first year of Song Shenzong Xining (AD 1068), and it continued until at least 40 years after the Song Huizong period. The firing time of enamel was only about 20 years from Song Zongzong to Song Huizong. "Tan Zhai Bi Heng" contained: "The present Dingzhou white porcelain was unusable, and Cangzhou was created into a celadon porcelain. Therefore, Tang, Deng and Yaozhou in Hebei Province were known. Quzhou is a quiver." Set: "The kiln ware out of the state of Bozhou, the lighter color of the dynasty when it is burned, and the crab claw pattern is true." But the kiln is not confined to Zhangzhou, but is distributed in the neighboring areas. The reason why the kiln is called is because it is burned from this place and its craft is the craft of Yiyang kiln. As an official kiln, porcelain wares fired in the Song Zongzong and Song Huizong dynasties in Yiyang kiln were also known as porcelain enamels. Because of this, academia called Yiyang kiln enamel kiln mouth.
Yiyang Kiln has exceeded all former celadons in the south in the porcelain making process. It has played the tradition of carving, carving, and carving under the glaze of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. It also accepted the glaze colors of the southern Vietnam kiln and drew on the printing technology of the Ding Kiln. At the same time, it was also affected by the Yaozhou kiln in Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province, and adopted the caving technique of stud burning; the long-established family created a unique style with the characteristics of the times and the printed celadon, becoming one of the important kiln mouths in the Central Plains region. The history of ancient Chinese ceramics is unique.
"Industrial Xing, Luoyang Xing". We should call the "Yiyang Porcelain" brand, build the "Yiyang Porcelain Capital", and establish the Yiyang Porcelain Industry Cluster Area as a breakthrough for Yiyang's industrial and economic development in the future!