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Concept And Classification Of Ceramics

- Sep 02, 2017 -

Pottery and porcelain, the main difference between every informally: use clay fire ware pottery, with porcelain clay fire ware called porcelain. Porcelain is the pottery, the floorboard of the stoneware and porcelain anyone with clay and China clay the two different nature of the clay as raw material, after ingredients, molding, drying, roasting process artifacts can be made, such as ceramic. Include a wider range of ceramic, some water, and acid resistance. Widely used in construction, chemical industry, electric power, machinery and other industrial and household decoration, etc. In addition, other than clay material, in accordance with the products made of ceramic manufacturing process method, also called ceramics, such as steatite porcelain, ceramic, ceramic capacitor, magnetic porcelain, etc. Widely used in radio, atomic energy, rockets, semiconductor industries. Currently, all ceramic products known as "inorganic non-metallic solid materials.

Pottery and porcelain are the daily necessities that people often come in contact with. Sometimes they look very similar to each other, but they have different characteristics after all. Earthenware is usually made of clay. Temperature of making pottery is generally between 900-1050 ℃. If the temperature is too high, the pottery will be deformed. The body of pottery is relatively loose, there are many pores, so there is a strong water absorption. Ordinary pottery has no glaze, even with glaze

The low temperature glaze. Our country has been burning pottery for about 10, 000 years. Making pottery, primitive society was made into a certain shape, using the method of manual knead later develop into clay to rub into the thickness of mud, put mud article against certain the shape of plate, and it will be erased its external use hand. There was a wheel-making process in the patriarchal society. After entering the feudal society, the mould making method was invented, and the clay was put into the mold, and the whole shape of the object was removed. It is speculated that the most primitive method of firing is the burning of the dried pottery in the open air. The pottery was started to be fired from pottery kiln more than 67,000 years ago. Cultural relics archaeologists are divided into red pottery, gray pottery, colored pottery, white pottery, painted pottery, black pottery and glazed pottery, according to the color of pottery.

Red pottery is the most common kind of pottery in primitive society and its color is like red brick. In the kiln, the gas was fully supplied to form an oxidizing atmosphere, which turned the iron in the clay into three valence iron and showed a red color.

(1) gray pottery

In the later stages of the kiln, the reduction flame was used to convert the iron oxide in the raw materials into two valence iron. In this case, the burnt pottery was grey or black. Gray pottery is the most common pottery of the people, the texture is loose and coarse.

(2) red pottery

Red pottery is burnt in the atmosphere of oxidizing, the texture is more hard and meticulous.

(3) colored pottery

Painted pottery is the most exquisite pottery in the new Stone Age culture, and the colorful pottery of yangshao culture is the masterpiece. The colored pottery pattern is before the kiln is roasting, using the paint of iron and manganese to paint on the blank body, and then the furnace will be burned with the flame. The paint is firmly on the surface of the utensil, not easy to fall off. The decorative patterns on the painted pottery have varied floral patterns, animal prints of various forms, and geometric patterns. Common utensils are food, storage and water absorber. Such as bowls, bowls, basins, plates, cups, POTS, bottles, etc. One example is the human surface fish pattern basin in xi 'an.

There is also a kind of colored pottery that is painted after the pottery is burned, saying "painted pottery", the color is easy to flake off. The Terra Cotta Warriors and horses are painted pottery. It is painted pottery, which is also colored. The difference between it and the colored pottery is that the pottery is burnt and then colored. As the color is not roasting, it is easy to fall away from the body. The Terra Cotta Warriors and horses unearthed in xi 'an belong to painted pottery.

(4) black pottery

When the black pottery is roasting, the early stage USES the flame, and when the kiln is close to the end, it will be used to produce the smoke (when the flame is a reduction flame), and it will appear black after a short period of penetration. Sintering temperature at about 1000 ℃. Some of the black pottery is black and shiny, with a thin, egg-shell. The black pottery refers to the light and dark pottery mainly in the matriarchal clan society stage. This is a black smoke that can be seen through the smoke and smoke in the late roasting, allowing the carbon particles in the smoke to infiltrate and fill the gaps in the pottery. Some of the walls in the black pottery are as thin as eggshells and are called "eggshell pottery".

(5) white pottery

White pottery is made of kaolin burning white pottery, TaiZhi exquisite and hard, firing temperature at about 1000 ℃. In the area of jiangnan region and the southeast coast of China, a unique pattern of hard pottery has been unearthed.

(6) glazed pottery

Glazed pottery common has two kinds, one is gray, TaiZhi hard, strap with gray transparent blue glaze, glazed pottery of sintering temperature of 1200 ℃. Its physical performance is close to China, the raw material of kaolin, bibulous rate is low, temperature 1200 ℃, with metal sound of knocking. So it is called the original celadon. Another kind is in the late western han dynasty has emerged of fetal red pottery, its surface green, yellow, tan shi low-temperature glaze, glaze with lead in flux, so called lead glazed pottery, tang is low-temperature glazed pottery.